What Happens If A Huge Star Collides With A Small Black Hole?


The result of a collision of any star with a black hole depends on the nature of this collision. The collision of such large-scale objects as stars extremely rarely occurs head-on-head, objects usually pass at some distance from each other, spinning around a common center of mass.

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A binary star system
A binary star system

Under certain conditions, they can form a stable system, but quite often, the bodies again scatter in different directions. If we assume that the black hole and star formed a stable system, then if the black hole is at a great distance from the star, it will not absorb stellar matter, and the star and black hole will rotate around a common center of mass.

If the black hole is close to or below the surface of the star, then tidal forces will begin to tear the star and drag the substance of the star into the hole. In this case, the absorption rate of the substance is limited by the size of the black hole, therefore, in the collision of a large star and a small black hole, a large percentage of the substance will be dispersed by rotation around the hole and thrown into space.

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Huge Star Collides With A Small Black Hole
A simulation of the absorption of a small star by a small black hole.

Over time, the hole will change the balance between the force of attraction of the star and the pressure in its bowels, which will lead to the explosion of the star, in which only part of the substance will be absorbed by the black hole. The magnitude of the explosion depends on the parameters of the star and the black hole.

The larger the black hole is, the more material the star can absorb, but only supermassive black holes with masses of hundreds of millions and billions of solar masses can swallow stars almost completely.

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