A 2015 study published by physicist John E. Brandenburg has the best explanation of what could have happened on Mars. The planet that once had an Earthlike atmosphere faced a massive thermonuclear explosion that destroyed its atmosphere. The study considered the Cydonian Hypothesis and Fermi’s Paradox.
Brandenburg considered the Cydonian Hypothesis in the light of imaging and geochemical data. He adopted a model of Earthlike eroded archeology for comparison with Mars artifacts using the pyramids at Giza and the Sphinx and Olmec heads as analogs under the Principle of Mediocrity with attention to detail.
Enrico Fermi analyzed the problem of the universe where intelligent life was both possible and noisy. He also knew the Universe was very old compared to humanity. There was plenty of time for other species to develop and make radio and TV broadcasts and spread throughout the universe to all habitable planets.
NASA, from its inception, expected that artifacts of past intelligent activity might be found in the Solar System: “Though intelligent or semi-intelligent life conceivably exists elsewhere in our solar system, if intelligent extraterrestrial life is discovered in the next twenty years, it will very probably be by radio telescope from other solar systems. Evidence of its existence might also be found in artifacts left on the moon or other planets.”
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In his work, Physicist Brandenburg showed that the data from two Martian sites Cydonia Mensa and Galaxias Chaos were studied, which formed the basis for the Cydonian Hypothesis of an ancient, indigenous, approximately Bronze Age civilization on Mars. Isotopic and gamma-ray data from Mars revealed evidence that a massive mixed fusion-fission explosion happened on Mars near Cydonia Mensa.
Evidence For Large Thermonuclear explosions In Mars’ Past
The noble gases, which remain nearly free of chemical reactions with the environment and whose original relative abundances are thought to be fixed by primordial nucleo-synthesis predating the formation of the solar system, provide clues to the processes which have shaped contemporary planetary atmospheres.
A signature feature of Mars’s atmosphere is the predominance of two noble gas isotopes: 129Xe and 40Ar over their other isotopes relative to Earth and other inventories. Both these gases are recognized as radiogenic, being due to nuclear reactions in a planetary environment. These isotopic features are unique to Mars, and allowed the identification of Mars as the parent body of the SNC meteorites.
It means that the Martian surface was apparently the site of massive radiological events, which created large amounts of signature isotopes and covered the surface with a thin layer of radioactive debris enriched in certain elements relative to its subsurface rocks. This pattern of phenomenon can be explained as due to two large anomalous nuclear explosions on Mars in the past.
The Cydonian Hypothesis was based on evidence of archeology on Mars at several sites, principally the Face in Cydonia and the nearby D&M Pyramid, plus evidence of a long period of Terrestrial climate on Mars.
It was the simplest hypothesis that could be formulated, based on Viking data, to explain the apparent archeology on Mars since it assumed the same processes: life, evolution, and civilization, that produced the Pyramids and the Sphinx on Earth, had operated on Mars and for similar periods.
Based on evidence that Mars and Earth evolved with a liquid water environment on their surfaces for most of their history, as evidenced by an ocean bed on the youngest part of Mars, the high oxidation state of Mars surface and sediments, plus evidence that biology began early on Mars, as on Earth, and persisted for most of its geologic history.
Finally, higher resolution images of the face and D&M pyramid in Cydonia Mensa showing apparent brickwork and new anatomic and artistic details not seen in Viking Images, and the new images of the face “Galaxias A” in Galaxias Chaos (also called the Utopia site), that confirming its similar structure to the face in Cydonia Mensa as well as new details suggesting brickwork, the author now concludes that the CH has been confirmed.
That is: apparent eroded archeology exists from a dead indigenous civilization on Mars at several sites, consistent with a long-lived and evolved biosphere on Mars in the past, as on Earth. It is also worth pointing out in passing, that the nuclear calamity discussed in the study may have left some bacterial species unscathed and intact, and these may well have been detected in the 1976 Viking Labelled Release Experiments of Gilbert Levin and Patricia Straat.
The existence of a dead humanoid civilization on Mars is completely consistent with its apparent long-lived Earthlike past climate and the Principle of Mediocrity, the idea that humanoid intelligence is not exotic or miraculous, but is a natural consequence of any long lived Earthlike biosphere. This Martian civilization apparently perished due to a planet-wide catastrophe of unknown origin, that changed Mars climate from being Earthlike to its present state in a brief period compared to geologic time. However, what ended this civilization, was it a massive nuclear attack?
Taken together, the evidence suggests that Mars was the locale of a planetary nuclear massacre. The answer to Fermi’s Paradox may thus lie on Mars. Brandenburg recommended that a mission for human occupation of Mars be immediately initiated to maximize knowledge of what transpired there.